Bagmati province lies between 83055′ & 86034′ East longitude and 26055′ & 28023′ North latitude. It has an area of 20,300 sq.km i.e 13.79% of the total area of the country. Out of which 27.29% land is covered by forest. It is bordered by Province 2 and India in the south, China in the north, Gandaki Province in the west and Province 1 in the east. Topographically, the province can be divided into four main regions starting from the the high Himalayan Region (above 5000m) in the north to the Low plain Terai or Madesh (below 500m).
Apart from the topographical divisions, administratively there are 13 Districts. As per the new constitutional provision there are 119 local governments composed of 3 metropolitan city, 1 sub-metropolitan city, 41 municipalities and 74 rural-municipalities with 1121 wards. Only 24.34% of land in the province is used for agriculture purpose. While 59.27% land is occupied by forest and grassland area and 0.02% land is covered by ponds and lakes.
Apart from the ecological divisions, administratively there are 14 Districts. As per the new constitutional provision there are 137 local governments composed of 1 metropolitan city, 2 sub-metropolitan cities, 46 municipalities and 88 sub-municipalities with 1157 wards with 6043 elected members.
Bagmati province has climatic variations, which is associated with the diverse nature of its topography and altitude. Climatic zone of Bagmati province starts from High Himal in the north, above 5000 m with tundra and arctic climate to Siwalik region in the south, 500-1000 m with sub-tropical climatic zone. The annual precipitation also varies from 150-200 mm in the high Himalayas to 1100-3000 mm in the southern plains. Similarly, average annual temperature of the province varies from below 30c to 250c.
There are 10 sub-basins and 33 major rivers flowing through the province. The longest river is Sunkoshi measuring 160.19 km.